Fix inconsistency for `Sequence.max`

Pitch: I'd like to propose that we modify the behavior of the Sequence.max algorithms to match the free max(...) functions in cases where there is more than one "maximum" element.


SR-12113 asks that we codify the behavior of the min and max methods on sequences into a guarantee in the documentation. Unfortunately, the current behavior of the max methods is inconsistent with other places in the standard library that identify the maximum of two or more inputs, when there is more than one "maximum" value.

Specifically, the sequence method returns the first of several maximum elements in the sequence, while the other APIs (the max free functions and the FloatingPoint.maximum static methods) return the last of the maximum values. In general, this difference behavior isn't noticeable, but for class instances it's observable through instance identity, and when using the predicate-based method can be observed through whatever properties aren't included.

Here's a silly example to demonstrate:

// Every instance of `Comp` is "equal" but
// distinguishable by its `value` property.
struct Comp: Comparable {
    var value: Int

    init(_ v: Int) {
        self.value = v

    static func ==(lhs: Comp, rhs: Comp) -> Bool { true }
    static func < (lhs: Comp, rhs: Comp) -> Bool { false }

let a = [Comp(1), Comp(2), Comp(3), Comp(4)]

// The sequence method returns the first element
a.max()                     // Comp(value: 1)

// The free function returns the _last_ element
max(a[0], a[1], a[2], a[3]) // Comp(value: 4)

Which is the correct behavior?

Alexander Stepanov discusses the ordering of min and max functions in lecture 7 of his notes (see pages 57-63, but particularly 61-63 here). In particular, he posits that min and max should provide the same stability that sorting two elements does, such that min(x, y) should always equal the first element of sort_2(&x, &y), and that max(x, y) should always equal the second element of sort_2(&x, &y).

Because the standard library's sort is stable (though not yet promised as such), we can extend this principle into Swift by stating the rule this way, for any collection a:

a.min() == a.sorted().first
a.max() == a.sorted().last     // *

// using `a...` to imply a variadic splat:
min(a...) == a.sorted().first
max(a...) == a.sorted().last

Proposed Solution

Swift currently fails the test marked by // *. I would like to correct that inconsistency and document the behavior for all the sequence methods.


This sounds well justified and a useful change in behavior.


Doesn’t this imply that we should also promise that the standard library’s sort is stable?




My vague recollection when I filed SR-12113 was that having it return the first element was ideal for my use-case. However I don't remember if I cared about min(), max(), or both.

Having said that, I'm strongly in favor of unifying the behavior of the sequence algorithms with the free functions. I also like the elegance of defining their behavior in terms of stable sort. I'm strongly in favor of guaranteeing stable sort, and so I'm in favor of changing the behavior of Sequence.max and documenting it in terms of the semantics of stable sort.

1 Like

I'll repeat what I mentioned on the Jira here:

I think it's reasonable to document this for the ones that take a closure. But Equatable.== implies substitutability, so the most conservative position would be to not make that same guarantee for those because it's dubious to be relying on it mattering, so reasonable to reserve the flexibility. That's probably just me being picky though.

FWIW I think there is an argument that returning the first value rather than the last could be more efficient, since storing each subsequent match and discarding the previous one as you go might need more retains and releases. That would be incompatible with the stepanov rationale.

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